Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go to war. - Albert Einstein
Be the change that you want to see in the world. - Mohandas Gandhi
Wars are poor chisels for carving out peaceful tomorrows. - Martin Luther King, Jr.
Living Free on the Path of Peace
"There is no path to peace. Peace is the path." - Mohandas Gandhi
"There is one thing stronger than all the armies in the world, and that is an idea whose time has come." - Victor Hugo
A Guiding Light
Welcome fellow travelers! Greetings to all wanderers and wonderers, free thinkers and truth seekers, individualists and communalists. A warm hello to those longing to live a life of their choosing, without threat or coercion. For all seeking to live free on the path of peace, welcome to sanctuary!
The site you have discovered is both an exploration and a celebration of a beautifully simple, life affirming idea called the Non-Aggression Principle. Like the symbol of the dove, it is the Happy Marriage of Peace and Liberty, essential values for the promotion of life and the enrichment of culture.
The Non-Aggression Principle, or NAP, is the belief that people should be free to live as they choose with the exception that they may not initiate force, or the threat of force, against another person or their property. Like the Golden Rule and the Principle of Charity, the NAP can serve as a guiding light to help each of us navigate this journey of a lifetime.
Note: Hover over or tap images for animations, alternate views and additional information..
By the Light of Liberty..
"We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light." - Plato
How does one navigate an increasingly violent and unfree world, a world where laws are increasingly arbitrary and unjust, created without consent or public debate, divorced from any connection to morality or reality?
Across the globe we have witnessed cruel and ineffective lockdowns, dehumanizing masking, scientifically unsupportable medical mandates and massive propaganda campaigns created to maximize fear and compliance by targeting anyone challenging the authoritarian message. Out of control price increases, created through unwarranted and unsustainable money printing, punishes and impoverishes the poorest and most vulnerable. And through it all wars, both open and covert, continue unhindered while unimaginably deadly weapons stand poised to destroy humanity at the whims of unhinged politicians.
We live in an age where not just basic human rights but reality itself is under attack. Amidst the heightened confusion and intensifying gloom, now more then ever it is vital that we see clearly and act with courage and compassion.
Advocates of the NAP will often say that they have taken "the red pill". Borrowed from the movie The Matrix, the phrase encapsulates the idea of choosing to see the world as it actually is. Others may reference The Wizard of Oz and "seeing behind the curtain" or talk about Plato's Allegory of the Cave. In that story people are chained in darkness and can only discern shadows of the truth until freed to see in the full light of day.
To embrace the NAP is to see the world in a new light. And with that light it becomes clear that the institution of the State, with its foundational violence, hostility towards freedom and insatiable desire for power, is the single greatest threat to our personal and cultural health.
..We Will Heal Our Culture
"Violence is a disease. You don't cure a disease by spreading it to more people." - The Game of Thrones
For generations the State has insisted that freedom must be sacrificed in the name of peace, and that peace must be surrendered for freedom. The reality is that peace and liberty are not in opposition but are complimentary and fully compatible. The often forgotten truth is that war is the true enemy of peace, just as slavery is the eternal enemy of freedom. In surrendering our liberties to the State and acquiescing to its many aggressions, rather than living free and peaceful lives, we instead find ourselves imprisoned within a progressively sicker, and increasingly more violent, antisocial system.
Whether it be its wars on personal freedoms at home or its endless wars against people and societies abroad, it is evident that the State is the source of immense suffering and violence. Infecting our society at the deepest levels, the State is like a deadly virus, with war being just one of its many diseases. As with Marxism, slavery and human sacrifice, war is a disease of culture. By hindering society from operating at its life affirming optimum these culturally destructive diseases, propagated mind to mind through fear, coercion and deception, can be deadly beyond imagination. In a world of nuclear arsenals and biological and chemical weapons, they threaten our very existence.
Because the State thrives on ignorance, apathy and fear, the cure for war and the other diseases of the State will require knowledge, compassion and courage. By providing new perspectives, by promoting cooperation and nonviolence, and by inoculating and protecting ourselves against the infectious lies, fears and violence of the State, it is hoped that we can begin the healing and work for a cure.
For those who are either new to the NAP or seek to know more, we have provided our fellow travelers with a Beginner's Guide to Peace. An overview of topics can be found on the first page of the Guide while the Resources page provides links to books, movies and other resources meant to inspire, inform and perhaps even transform.
"Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that." - Martin Luther King Jr.
"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." - The Buddha
"He is the best of men who dislikes power." - Mohammed
"This I believe: that the free, exploring mind of the individual human is the most valuable thing in the world." - John Steinbeck
Tales from the Trail
Observations and meditations on the path of peace.
Living free on the path of peace allows us to experience the fullness of life while providing abundant opportunities for the enhancement and advancement of our culture. Here are a few small collections of writings on various topics, from love, life and loss, to art and music and family, community and charity.
"Freedom over one's physical person is the most basic freedom of all, and people in a free society should be sovereign over their own bodies. When we give government the power to make medical decisions for us, we in essence accept that the state owns our bodies."
"When one gets in bed with government, one must expect the diseases it spreads." - Dr. Ron Paul
A former obstetrician, Ron Paul has been handing out the prescription for peace for decades. Regular updates of current events impacting freedom and peace can be found at The Ron Paul Liberty Report. Dr. Paul also does a live video broadcast Monday through Friday at 12:00 EST on Rumble.
Signs of the Times
"The further a society drifts from the truth, the more it will hate those that speak it." - George Orwell
"Those who can make you believe absurdities, can make you commit atrocities." - Voltaire
Signs of Deception
"Every record has been destroyed or falsified, every book rewritten, every picture has been repainted, every statue and street building has been renamed, every date has been altered. And the process is continuing day by day and minute by minute. History has stopped." - From 1984 by George Orwell
The Great Reset
We are living at a unique time. In the past several years we have witnessed the stunningly rapid and unwarranted concentration of wealth and power to levels without precedent. Whether you believe it was orchestrated by a cabal of bankers and oligarchs, was the result of massive governmental overreach cheered on by arrogant and misinformed technocrats, or was simply the consequence of governmental incompetence on a global scale, the outcome is the same.
The younger generations have been sacrificed. While it was clear in early 2020 that the young had little to fear from the Covid-19 virus, at the hands of the State they will pay a truly frightful price. Already burdened with an ocean of debt from decades of brutal and senseless wars, at home and abroad, they have been taught to embrace conformity and to fear freedom in any form. Shamed into submission by a modern incarnation of original sin, scared to even breathe, the natural tendency of youth to question and resist authority has been greatly diminished. As a reward for their obedience, they have been offered as sacrificial lambs to the corporatist State.
It is truly an age of destruction and dysfunction. We are suffering from a pandemic of panic, a level of fear heightened to a level not seen since World War II and the Cold War. Hidden behind a mask of deception, the State works mightily to maintain the charade, threatening any who dare look behind the curtain.
Signs of Resistance - A Distinct Minority
“A distinct minority of Americans, supported by a distinct minority of elected officials, are keeping us from turning the corner..This is not about freedom or personal choice..” ― Joe Biden (9/9/2021), announcing tyrannical plans to coerce millions of Americans into getting an experimental and undertested gene therapy.
“The only tyrant I accept in this world is the 'still small voice' within me. And even though I have to face the prospect of being a minority of one, I humbly believe I have the courage to be in such a hopeless minority.” ― Mahatma Gandhi
Concealed within a number of the images below are a set of questions. If viewing on a desktop or laptop computer, hover over an image and then move off to uncover. On tablets and smart phones, tap on an image and then tap again outside. Refresh the page to see the originals. Please note that some of the underlying graphic files make take several seconds to load.
Questioning the Orthodoxy
In the city of Athens, in the year 399 BC, one of the world's greatest thinkers is sentenced to death.
His alleged crime: "Corrupting the youth of Athens" by "refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state".
His real crime: encouraging the youth of Athens to think independently, to challenge orthodoxy, and to question, always to question.
The namesake of the Socratic Method and teacher of Plato, this lover of wisdom is known to us as Socrates.
Fast forward to the modern age. Not much has changed, it would seem, for in our advanced, technical, and supposedly secular world it is demanded that we worship a new pantheon of gods. In the modern incarnation the state itself has become a god, perhaps even "the" god. As always, though, the citizen has the subservient role: to accept the absolute authority of the state, to embrace its symbols of power, and to obey, always to obey.
The State: Destroyer of Lives, Enemy of Freedom and Truth
Over the centuries philosophers, teachers and other guides have endeavored to share the tools of reason and evidence, intellectual gifts from our ancestors, to further the discovery of truth. Unfortunately, there have been many times in our history they have been violently and irrationally opposed. Our modern world seems to be one of those times as we are encouraged to reject these tools, to hate the truth, and to submissively wait for the ever changing "truth" of the State to be revealed.
The attack on truth is a part of a larger attack on personal freedom. It is a sickness that has infected societies many times through the ages. It is the dark and monomaniacal desire to rule over others.
Most of us seek only to rule ourselves, and thus have a difficult time imagining the levels of depravity that some will go in their lust to dominate (libido domanandi). We should always understand that any of us can become the next target. Unfortunately, as with war, the most likely victims will be the young and innocent.
Sacrificing the Children
By February 2020 it was known that children and young people had little to fear from the SARS-CoV-2 corona virus. As with other viruses in its class, for the young and healthy it would be far less dangerous than the annual flu. Despite knowing this, and in the ultimate act of cowardice, it was decided that the young would be sacrificed in a vain attempt for the older generations, those with power, to live another six months. That six month figure was based on an early review of the data from the UK and elsewhere showing that the virus primary impacted the elderly and frail and resulted in a loss of about six months of life, on average. Subsequent data revealed that the early assessment was remarkably accurate and that the youth were always at very low risk.
In clear contradiction to the data and basic scientific reasoning, however, in many countries across the globe the lives of the young would be turned upside down. No playing in parks, no seeing friends faces in the classroom, no classroom at all for many, and then for most and, in some countries, no school at all. Fortunately the enlightened Swedes and a scattering of communities globally insisted that the lives of children would be best protected by continuing to live as normal and enriching lives as possible. By leaving sports venues, restaurants, nightclubs and other businesses open and by allowing mask wearing to remain voluntary, places like Sweden created healthy environments for living and, contrary to the hysterical predictions of the press and others, did not become hellholes of death but remained healthy and vibrant communities.
Heroes become villains
Children were not the only innocent victims of governmental reaction to the virus. Front line doctors, nurses and other medical professionals, hailed as heroes at the start of the outbreak, quickly became zeros if they dared question the safety and efficacy of the rushed gene therapy shots. Having seen the serious and sometimes deadly side effects of the shots, many resisted getting the experimental injections, even when their jobs were threatened or even terminated. It was truly appalling. Few others in our society were better positioned to witness the impact of both the "vaccines" and the virus and weigh the actual risks of the minimally tested jabs compared to the disease. To the great detriment to all of us, many were coerced into silence.
Other groups were also targeted. The military, tasked with protecting the homeland from foreign tyranny, was itself attacked by a far more dangerous tyranny within. Healthy young men and women service members, having exceptionally low risk of harm from the novel virus, were forced to be injected with an experimental gene treatment. Religious and medical exemptions were granted rarely, if at all. It was not until December 2022, as part of deal to ensure passage of an insane $858 billion "defense" spending bill, that the vaccine mandates were finally dropped, but not before inflicting untold damage to the ranks of young patriots desiring to serve their country.
In a cruel irony, in their lust to dominate others, it was often governments long dominated by the Democrat party that most negatively impacted their own core constituencies. In cities from LA to Chicago, NYC and DC, restaurants, night clubs, theaters and other businesses were coerced into requiring patrons to present evidence of "vaccination", a clear violation of an individual's right to medical privacy, and privacy in general. Having an institutional knowledge of previous government atrocities such as the four decades of unethical experiments conducted by the CDC on syphilis patients at Tuskegee University, self identified blacks, in disproportionately large numbers, resisted the incredible pressure to receive the undertested and questionable mRNA shots. The end result of the government mandates was a reintroduction of institutionally supported segregation.
Of course, it is the young people who have paid and will continue to pay the greatest price from the reckless, authoritarian and blatantly unscientific actions of governments at multiple levels. The damage done will take decades to assess, but already we know that the impact has been significant, negatively affecting the educational development and physical and emotional health of millions.
Terrorized into believing their every breath could endanger grandma, the beautiful faces of our children were unnecessarily covered in a clear contradiction to the actual data. Muffled in their ability to speak and lacking the ability to see the faces of others, the language development of the very young was severely retarded. Older children did not fare better as national test scores of 4th and 8th graders in the U.S. showed significant decreases, plunging to 30 year lows.
Most horrifying of all are the reports of significant increases of "excess deaths" reported by insurance companies in multiple countries. Insurance companies providing group life insurance to working age populations for large companies have seen huge increases in non-Covid related deaths among 18 to 65 year old workers. For example, Lincoln National, the 5th largest insurance company in the U.S, in 2022 reported a 163 percent increase in death benefit payouts for non-pandemic-related mortality compared to the previous year. These large increases in deaths were not seen in this normally healthy population in 2020 during the height of the initial and most deadly wave of infection but coincided with the mass roll-out of the experimental mRNA injections.
An Economic Crater
In addition to the damage done to their health and welfare, citizens of the U.S. and many other countries are now confronted with the enormous economic damage created by foolish government policies. In the years 2020 and 2021, insane amounts of money were spent by governments across the globe to implement edicts and dictates that did little, if anything, to mitigate the spread of the dreaded virus. One example of this was the utterly irresponsible and ill-conceived act of sending multiple "stimulus" checks to tens of millions of social security recipients already retired and living off of the unsustainable taxation of young workers.
In a coordinated demonstration of mass derangement, the U.S. and other countries went on a massive spending spree, spending money they did not have. The short term solution? Have the central banks print more money. In just two years, the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank (the Fed) increased the money supply by 40 percent. The immediate effects were massive price increases and the devaluing of hard earned savings, disproportionately impacting the working class and those with limited incomes. The long term impacts will likely be a weaker economy and massive debt for the youngest generations for decades to come. These are the same young people already faced with the prospects of bailing out the clearly unsustainable Medicare and Social Security pyramid schemes.
Torturing the Truth
It seems insane that anyone can think that torture is the path to truth, but there are apparently some in government that believe this. It is one of the dark, largely unspoken truths of history that the U.S. government has engaged in torture for centuries. During the Spanish American War of 1898, for example, as the American empire began expanding overseas by seizing formerly Spanish colonies, there were numerous accounts of the "water cure" torture being administered to "uncooperative" Filipinos. This was not an anomaly, however, as government records show that torture has been used against native and slave populations since the 1700's.
In this century, George W. Bush bragged about using torture on suspected "terrorists", Obama kept the torture camp of Guantanamo Bay open and continued to hold suspects for years without due process, and Trump promised that he would torture even more while campaigning in 2016.
We can see from thousands of years of history that torture is something that empires excel at. Given their apparent lack of hesitation in torturing and destroying the lives of human beings, it should not be surprising to see language, and even truth itself, being tortured by those seeking to gain or maintain their power over others.
The lies that we have been subjected to, since the start of the Covid panic, have been monumental and breathtaking in scope. We have seen long standing definitions changed, research data manipulated, opposition voices silenced, and outright lies being propagated by governments and a compliant corporate press. The standard criteria for assigning cause of death was changed to amplify the reported number of deaths "from Covid", creating absurd situations where deaths from accidents were reported as Covid deaths if the patient had tested positive within 30 days of their passing.
So many falsehoods and lies of omission have been propagated that it can be difficult to determine the most damaging. Lockdowns, masking and undertested and coerced vaccinations have all been shown to have significantly detrimental impacts. The use of PCR technology as a method of disease diagnosis was perhaps the most destructive, however, as it provided the foundation for numerous misguided and damaging government edicts.
PCR technology is a method for amplifying small amounts of DNA. It was never meant to be used at a method for diagnosing disease. In the words of its creator, Nobel prize winning Dr. Kary Mullis, "The PCR is a process. It does not tell you that you are sick".
There was ample data at the very beginning showing that using PCR technology as a diagnostic tool was creating large numbers of false positives. A New York Times article from August 29, 2020 suggested that PCR "tests" were resulting in a false positive rate as high as 90%. They reported that most labs were running samples for 40 cycles. This was in contradiction to information provided by Anthony Fauci himself. On a July 17, 2020 “This Week In Virology” podcast, Fauci stated that the PCR Covid test was useless and misleading when the test was run at “35 cycles or higher.” Demonstrating a clear case of bureaucratic incompetence, the FDA at that time was recommending that the PCR process be run for 40 cycles.
In a striking example of outright fraud, in April 2021 the CDC began recommending PCR tests of just 28 cycles, but only for the vaccinated. Any person with even a rudimentary understanding of science and statistics can understand the obvious error of comparing "apples to oranges". It seems likely that this change in policy was driven by the need to drive down the reported number of "breakthrough cases" as more and more "vaccinated" patients were struck ill with Covid 19, puncturing the myth that the experimental mRNA jabs were effective.
The obvious conclusion from the misguided and unscientific use of PCR technology is that the case counts provided by the PCR tests are largely meaningless. The coerced masking, the damaging lockdowns, the forced injections were all built on an unsupportable foundation of fraudulent data.
Given the obviously questionable infection numbers, what was the reason for amplifying the case counts, for panicking the public, for frightening young children and their parents, for shutting down the economy on the basis of questionable data? Why was discussion of gain of function research and a possible lab leak at Wuhan suppressed? Why was information on the benefits of Vitamin D, exercise and sunshine not discussed? Why were the screaming warning signs in the CDC's and FDA's own Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) ignored? Why were discussions of early treatments like Ivermectin, an antimicrobial and antiviral safely used by hundreds of millions of people, attacked mercilessly?
Why were corrupt and inept pharmaceutical companies given legal immunity for their unproven and woefully undertested mRNA shots? In 2009 Pfizer was forced to pay out $2.3 billion for fraud, the largest fine in history for a pharmaceutical company, while more recently Johnson and Johnson has had to set aside billions to deal with numerous lawsuits, including many related to asbestos in its baby powder. Moderna, on the other hand, as of 2020 had never had a successful product in its entire ten years of existence.
How did Bill Gates know to make a significant investment in September 2019 in a company called BioNTech, a Pfizer partner, and then cash out with a 15x return 2021, just two years later, when the company was near the peak of its value? Was it the negative reports leaking out that the jabs were neither safe nor effective, contrary to his own previous public statements? Did he know when he sold the stock that the product he had been promoting was an abysmal failure? Does the public know that most of the $250 million in profit made from the sale was “tax free” because it was laundered through his foundation? Perhaps it is time for more people to raise these and other questions and begin to challenge the "Cult of Covid".
Challenging the Covid Cult
"If we are not able to ask skeptical questions, to interrogate those who tell us that something is true, to be skeptical of those in authority, then we are up for grabs for the next charlatan (political or religious) who comes rambling along." ― Carl Sagan
“Imagine a vaccine so safe you have to be threatened to take it, for a disease so deadly you have to be tested to know you have it.” ― Unknown
In the U.S. and across the globe, millions of people have pushed back against the Cult of Covid. A brave few did this openly, putting their reputations and livelihoods on the line. Many millions of others resisted quietly, carefully navigating the toxic environment created by the immensely destructive authoritarian State, the hijacked corporate media and the compliant majoritarian mob.
In the early days of the lockdown madness, it was encouraging to see members of New York City's Orthodox Jewish community openly resisting the tyrannical and unconstitutional restrictions. Other communities, such as the Amish and Mennonites, took a quieter approach, continuing to practice a healthy lifestyle in their tight knit communities, eschewing masks and allowing their children, never of any real danger from the virus, to build their natural immunities and overall health.
A positive development for real science came in October 2020 in the form of the Great Barrington Declaration. Authored by scientists from Oxford, Harvard and Stanford Medical, the proposal called for focused protection. Signed by tens of thousands of doctors and scientists, it called into question the wisdom of lockdowns and other extreme measures.
Given what we now know about the State's manipulation of social media sites like Twitter, Facebook, Google and others, it is fortunate that a number of independent journalists and alternative news sites have been able to provide valuable information challenging the narrative. Alternate news and opinion sites like Lew Rockwell, Children's Heath Defense, the Epoch Times, the Brownstone Institute, the The Ron Paul Liberty Report and the Tom Woods Show have provided readers and listeners with excellent information to help gain a fuller understanding of the actual risks of the novel virus and the health, social and economic costs of many of the State's actions.
Substack in particular has proven to be a valuable platform for readers to find and support independent journalists and other writers. Alex Berenson, Ian Miller and Eugyppius have all provided excellent information through that platform. Glenn Greenwald continues to do incredible work investigating the State's attacks on our civil liberties. Scientists such as Dr. Robert Malone, inventor of several mRNA delivery technologies, and Dr. Peter McCullough, cardiologist and distinguished researcher, have drawn from their considerable expertise to provide excellent information through Substack and other outlets.
Other special mentions go to Project Veritas for their independent investigations, Zero Hedge, a popular news aggregator for those interested in economics and politics, and the Babylon Bee, a source of consistently good satire for those looking for a laugh!
Embracing a Questioning Attitude
"Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. The mediocre mind is incapable of understanding the man who refuses to bow blindly to conventional prejudices and chooses instead to express his opinions courageously and honestly." ― Albert Einstein
Science is a process for discovering the true nature of reality. It requires careful observation and measurement. It is driven by curiosity and skepticism. It benefits from honest conversation, rational debate and examining the evidence from multiple perspectives. It is humble in the recognition of its own ignorance.
Science is not an idol to be worshipped and obeyed. It is not a singular "truth" but a process for revealing truth. For science to flourish, dogmatic claims, misleading language and attacks against honest inquiry must be opposed. Together we must stand against the powerful who presume to speak for science or even claim, like the criminally fraudulent Fauci, to be "the science".
For any complex society to succeed, the freedom of every person to question and challenge the prevailing narrative is not a luxury but a necessity. We must each be free to ask the fundamental questions of all good journalism: who, what, why, when and where?
The first amendment right to a free press was not meant to be restricted to those that own a newspaper and a printing press, nor was the freedom of speech meant to be restricted to a self-anointed group. With billions of internet-connected smart phones dispersed across the globe, we need not and should not rely on government controlled corporate media to filter and distort reality to fit an obviously false and increasingly destructive narrative.
Every one of us is a miraculous manifestation of consciousness, each with the ability to experience the world with our own senses and to reflect thoughtfully and rationally on those experiences. More than any other person or agency, we each know best what we have personally experienced in our own lives. When our personal experiences and those of others we trust conflict with the official narrative, it is imperative that we embrace a questioning attitude, even when we find ourselves targeted as members of a small but distinct minority.
"The smallest minority on earth is the individual. Those who deny individual rights cannot claim to be defenders of minorities." - Ayn Rand
State sponsored violence and tyrannical restrictions on liberty are threatening to become epidemic across multiple regions of the globe, and there are signs we are on the verge of a world wide pandemic. Careful planning and extreme caution are advised.
Wars, despotism and other diseases created by unrestrained governments continue to destroy the lives of millions each year, and threaten millions more, both directly through violence and by the destruction of trade, infrastructure and basic human services.
^Liberty in Water Color: Original by Tanya Hall, with modifications.^Compassion: Detail from a statue atop the Ether Fountain, Boston Common. Designed by John Quincy Ward and Henry Van Brunt, the fountain commemorates the first use of ether at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1846. Photo and modifications by Andrew Lesko.^Guanyin-Bodhisattva: 14th-15th century lacquer figure from China, now residing at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD. Photo by Andrew Lesko.^School of Athens: Detail of a painting by Raphael, c. 1509-1511. Public domain image.
^ Absolute Horror: Photograph of Dresden by Richard Peter, 1945. Used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license. Downloaded from Wikimedia.org.
^Memorial Day: Detail from the Vietnam War Memorial, Washington D.C. Photo and artwork by Andrew Lesko.^ No Child Left a Dime:PatriotShop.US.^ Offering to Moloch: Illustration from "Bible Pictures and What They Teach Us" by Charles Foster, 1897 .^ Street art of Biden and Fauci: Artist unknown. Posters appeared around Washington DC mid January, 2022.^ Nurse, Wounded Soldier and Child: Painting by William Hatherell (1915).^ Girl in a Mask: Images by Marcos Cola at Pixabay.com.^ Crucifiction: Painting by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, circa 1675. Image from Wikimedia Commons.
Unless stated otherwise, all material copyright 2015-2023 (C) by Andrew Lesko - All Rights Reserved